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This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen County , New Jersey's most populous county, whose more than , residents in inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensack , with 44, residents estimated in Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey cities and indeed municipalities in general tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey by population have under 20 square miles of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles.
As of the United States Census [update] , only four municipalities had populations in excess of ,, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close.
Nine of New Jersey's counties are in the wealthiest of the country. New Jersey has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1.
The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, , is 6. This rate, which is comparably lower than that of New York City, often attracts numerous shoppers from New York City, often to suburban Paramus , New Jersey, which has five malls, one of which the Garden State Plaza has over two million square feet of retail space.
Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home.
In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax.
New Jersey consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States, based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives.
In , WalletHub ranked New Jersey the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar.
New Jersey has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation. As shown by the study, incomes tend to be higher in New Jersey, which puts those in higher tax brackets especially vulnerable to the alternative minimum tax.
New Jersey's economy is multifaceted, but is centered on the pharmaceutical industry , the financial industry , chemical development, telecommunications , food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism.
New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products.
Although New Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the state's use of nuclear power.
According to the Energy Information Administration , nuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of state generation.
New Jersey has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station , which came online in and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country.
New Jersey has a strong scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms, drawing on the state's large and well-educated labor pool.
There is also a strong service economy in retail sales, education, and real estate, serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia.
Shipping is a key industry in New Jersey because of the state's strategic geographic location, the Port of New York and New Jersey being the busiest port on the East Coast.
The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and today is one of the world's largest. New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune companies.
New Jersey's location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis and its extensive transportation system have put over one-third of all United States residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by land.
In , a referendum of New Jersey voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in The Pine Barrens , consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state.
Some mining activity of zinc , iron , and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace. New Jersey is second in the nation in solar power installations,  enabled by one of the country's most favorable net metering policies, and the renewable energy certificates program.
The state has more than 10, solar installations. In , there were school districts in the state. Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative.
In , the state government paid all of the teachers' premiums for health insurance,  but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums.
In , New Jersey spent more per each public school student than any other U. Princeton University in Princeton , Mercer County , one of the world's mot prominent research universities, is often featured at or near the top of various national and global university rankings, topping the list of U.
In , New Jersey's school systems were ranked at the top of all fifty U. Nine New Jersey high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U. New Jersey has continued to play a prominent role as a U.
Like every state, New Jersey has its own cuisine , religious communities , museums , and halls of fame. New Jersey is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio , the motion picture camera, the lithium battery , the light bulb , transistors , and the electric train.
Other New Jersey creations include: Diners are iconic to New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has over diners, more than any other place in the world.
New Jersey is the only state without a state song. I'm From New Jersey is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey state song, but it was not even a contender when in the New Jersey Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature.
New Jersey is frequently the target of jokes in American culture,  especially from New York City -based television shows, such as Saturday Night Live.
The New Jersey Turnpike , which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City and Philadelphia , is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones.
New Jersey is known for several foods developed within the region, including pork roll or Taylor ham , cheesesteaks , and scrapple. Credit for the development of submarine sandwiches is claimed by several states with substantial Italian American populations, including New Jersey.
New Jersey has long been an important origin for both rock and rap music. Prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey include:.
Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison , with much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory. Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio.
America's first motion picture industry started in in Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey.
Since , the state has maintained a Motion Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state.
Governor Chris Christie suspended the credits in , but the New Jersey State Legislature in approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program.
The New Jersey Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll road carries Interstate 95 traffic between Delaware and New York, and up and down the East Coast in general.
Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans.
The Garden State Parkway , or simply "the Parkway," carries relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May.
It is the main route that connects the New York metropolitan area to the Jersey Shore and is consistently one of the safest roads in the nation.
With a total of 15 travel and 6 shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River in Middlesex County , is the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes as well as one of the busiest.
New Jersey is connected to New York City via various key bridges and tunnels. The double-decked George Washington Bridge carries the heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world, at million vehicles per year, across fourteen lanes.
New Jersey has interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. Bridge tolls are collected in one direction only — it is free to cross into New Jersey, but motorists must pay when exiting the state, with a few exceptions.
It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Jersey. It became the last remaining U. United Airlines is the airport's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal there, which it uses as one of its primary hubs.
FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at Newark as well. Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airport , also operate in other parts of the state.
Teterboro Airport in Bergen County , and Millville Municipal Airport in Cumberland County , are general aviation airports popular with private and corporate aircraft due to their proximity to New York City and the Jersey Shore , respectively.
NJ Transit operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. A state-run corporation, it began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey in In the early s, it acquired Conrail's commuter train operations that connected suburban towns to New York City.
Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different parts of the state. One line provides service between Atlantic City and Philadelphia , Pennsylvania.
NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state. The Newark Light Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city.
The River Line connects Trenton and Camden. Amtrak operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey, both to and from neighboring states and around the country.
Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA companies make up the bulk.
Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic City.
The position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. Until , the governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials.
Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of the New Jersey State Senate , thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process.
In and , President of the State Senate Richard Codey held the position of acting governor for a short time, and from to Codey became a long-term acting governor due to Jim McGreevey 's resignation.
A amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate.
Phil Murphy D is the Governor. The governor's mansion is Drumthwacket , located in Princeton. Before , New Jersey was one of the few states without a lieutenant governor.
The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, and effective as of January 17, The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislature , consisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members.
Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms.
New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years. The others are Kentucky , Louisiana , Mississippi , and Virginia.
New Jersey holds elections for these offices every four years, in the year following each federal Presidential election year.
Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a Governor was ; the next gubernatorial election will occur in , with future gubernatorial elections to take place in , , , etc.
All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out in the Municipal Court, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard.
More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county. All Superior Court judges are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate.
Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity , like its neighbor Delaware but unlike most other U.
The New Jersey Superior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal cases and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damages , while the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials.
The Superior Court also has an Appellate Division , which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court. There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction.
Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. They also hear appeals on decisions made by the Director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates.
Tax Court judges are appointed by the Governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of There are 12 Tax Court judgeships.
New Jersey is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey was completely divided into counties by ; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in New Jersey is the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders," governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders.
The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members.
Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government.
In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments.
In the other 5 counties Atlantic , Bergen , Essex , Hudson and Mercer , there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role.
In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator or County Manager may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.
New Jersey currently has municipalities; the number was before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, Unlike other states, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality.
In , Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10, people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs.
Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented.
This began with the Walsh Act , enacted in by the New Jersey Legislature , which provided for a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis.
This was followed by the Municipal Manager Law , which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs.
The Faulkner Act , originally enacted in and substantially amended in , offers four basic plans: The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters.
Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature.
While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public.
For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government.
Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. New Jersey also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.
These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony.
BB guns and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.
In past elections, New Jersey was a Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic stronghold. Currently, New Jersey Democrats have majority control of both houses of the New Jersey Legislature Senate, 24—16, and Assembly, 47—33 , a 7—5 split of the state's twelve seats in the U.
House of Representatives , and both U. Because each candidate for lieutenant governor runs on the same ticket as the party's candidate for governor, the current Governor and Lieutenant Governor are members of the Democratic Party.
The governor's appointments to cabinet and non-cabinet positions may be from either party; for instance, the Attorney General is a Democrat.
In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party. For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of , , and New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of , , and The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden County , Essex County typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes Newark , the state's largest city , Hudson County the second-strongest Democratic county, including Jersey City , the state's second-largest city ; Mercer County especially around Trenton and Princeton , Middlesex County , and Union County including Elizabeth , the state's fourth-largest city.
The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County , Sussex County , and Warren County.
Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County and Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party.
In the election, President Barack Obama won New Jersey with approximately fifty-seven percent of the vote, compared to McCain's forty-one percent. Independent candidate Ralph Nader garnered less than one percent of the vote.
About one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others.
For example, Salem County , the same is true with Passaic County , with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south including Paterson , the state's third-largest city and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne in the middle.
Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County , Somerset County , and Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic.
To be eligible to vote in a U. On December 17, , Governor Jon Corzine signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey.
New Jersey is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and West Virginia eliminated executions in There is also a mineral museum Ogdensburg in Sussex County.
Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including:.
New Jersey currently has four major league teams based in the state, although only one, the National Hockey League 's New Jersey Devils , bears the state's name.
Since , they have played their home games at the Prudential Center in Newark. The Meadowlands Sports Complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack , one of three major harness racing tracks in the state.
That track, along with Freehold Raceway in Freehold , are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America.
Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport is a popular spot for thoroughbred horse racing. It hosted the Breeders' Cup in , and its turf course was renovated in preparation.
Rutgers joined the Big Ten Conference in Seton Hall's basketball team has been one of the most storied programs in the Big East Conference, [ citation needed ] and it plays its home games at the Prudential Center in Newark.
The Pirates made a huge comeback as a program in with a top-5 recruiting class nationally. The Pirates have support in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore.
Rutgers and Princeton have an intense rivalry — stemming from the first intercollegiate football game in — though the two schools have not met on the football field since They continue to play each other annually in other sports.
Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known for its excellent football and women's basketball programs.
The university also fields rising basketball and baseball programs. Sports are divided between 3 seasons fall, winter, and spring. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the U. For other uses, see New Jersey disambiguation. For other uses, see NJ disambiguation. The Flag of New Jersey. The Seal of New Jersey.
History of New Jersey. Colonial history of New Jersey. New Jersey in the American Revolution. New Jersey in the 19th century. New Jersey in the 20th century.
Interactive map of New Jersey. New Jersey in the 21st century. Geography of New Jersey. Religion in New Jersey. List of counties in New Jersey.
List of municipalities in New Jersey. Largest cities or towns in New Jersey Source: New Jersey locations by per capita income. Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New Jersey.
Gambling in New Jersey. Cuisine of New Jersey. Music of New Jersey. List of radio stations in New Jersey. Television and film of New Jersey.
Transportation in New Jersey. List of New Jersey State Highways. Government of New Jersey. Phil Murphy D 56th Governor since January 16, Robert Menendez D Senior U.
Cory Booker D Junior U. Judiciary of New Jersey. List of New Jersey counties. Politics of New Jersey. Elections in New Jersey.
Political party strength in New Jersey. Capital punishment in New Jersey. List of museums in New Jersey. Sports in New Jersey.
List of college athletic programs in New Jersey. List of New Jersey state symbols. List of people from New Jersey. New Jersey portal United States portal.
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Archived from the original CSV on December 23, Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on October 31, Norra New Jersey tillhör New Yorks storstadsregion och de västra delarna hör till Philadelphias storstadsregion.
Delstaten delas in i tre delar; norra, centrala och södra New Jersey, samt i 21 counties. De fem största folkgrupperna är italienare, irländare, afrikaner, tyskar och polacker.
Den allra största religionen är kristendomen, främst katolicism, men även stor andel judar och övriga religioner.
New Jersey har en skiftande natur; delstatens smeknamn är "Garden State". I södra New Jersey där Atlanten utgör västra gränsen är naturen mer typisk för kustklimatet.
Flodmynningar, laguner och strandvallar är vanliga inslag längs med kusten. Vanliga däggdjur är bland annat hjort, svartbjörn, tvättbjörn och ekorrar.
Dagens Lenni Lenape lever bland annat i Mellanvästern , främst Oklahoma , och Kanada , dit en grupp fördrevs efter att ha allierat sig med lojalisterna under amerikanska frihetskriget.
Hudsonflodens floddal och det nuvarande nordöstra New Jersey koloniserades först av nederländare under början och mitten av talet, som kolonin Nya Nederländerna.
Under engelska inbördeskriget var kanalön Jersey hela tiden lojal mot kronan och gav kungen en fristad. New Jersey var en av de tretton kolonier som deltog i upproret mot Storbritannien vid bildandet av USA.
Delstaten stannade i unionen under Amerikanska inbördeskriget. Klimatmässigt har New Jersey generellt ett tempererat klimat förutom ett subtropiskt klimat längst i söder.
Traditionella näringsgrenar som jordbruk och tillverkningsindustri har minskat sedan talet. Oljeföretaget Exxon tillhör de företag som haft forskning och utveckling i delstaten.